Fishnets and overlapping polygons

r
spatial
tutorial
Author

Josiah Parry

Today a question was asked in the geocompr discord. I wanted to share part of the solution as I think it covers 2 helpful things:

For this example I’m using data from the Atlanta GIS Open Data Portal. Specifically using the future land use polygons.

I’ve downloaded a local copy of the data as a geojson. But you can read it using the ArcGIS Feature Server it is hosted on.

Objective

Create a map of Atlanta, visualized as a hexagon grid, that displays the amount of planned mixed use zoning. This will be done in the following sequence:

  1. Creating a fishnet (hexagon) grid over the city
  2. Creating intersected polygons
  3. Calculate the area of intersected polygons
  4. Join back to the original fishnet grid
  5. visualized.

Mixed-use zoning

Start by loading sf, dplyr, and ggplot2. sf for our spatial work, dplyr for making our lives easier, and ggplot2 for a bad map later.

We read in our data (mine is local). You can use the commented out code to read directly from the ArcGIS feature server.

# read from the ArcGIS feature server
# st_read("https://services5.arcgis.com/5RxyIIJ9boPdptdo/arcgis/rest/services/Land_Use_Future/FeatureServer/0/query?outFields=*&where=1%3D1&f=geojson")

future_land_use <- read_sf("Future_Land_Use_.geojson") |> 
  mutate(geometry = st_make_valid(geometry))

Let’s look at the different land use descriptions.

future_land_use |> 
  st_drop_geometry() |> 
  count(LANDUSEDESC, sort = TRUE) |> 
  reactable::reactable()

To see a disgusting map with a bad legend run the following.

future_land_use |> 
  ggplot(aes(fill = LANDUSEDESC)) +
  geom_sf(lwd = 0.15, color = "black")

We can see that there are a bunch of different descriptions for different types of mixed use zoning. Let’s filter down to descriptions that have "Mixed-Use" or "Mixed Use" and visualize them.

# how much area of mixed use land use?
mixed_use <- future_land_use |> 
  filter(grepl("Mixed-Use|Mixed Use" , LANDUSEDESC)) 

ggplot() +
  geom_sf(data = mixed_use, fill = "blue", color = NA) +
  theme_void()

Making a fishnet grid

Having made a fishnet grid quite a few times, I’ve got this handy function. In essence we create a grid over our target geometry and we keep only those locations from the grid that intersect eachother. If we dont’, we have a square shaped grid.

It is important that you create an ID for the grid, otherwise when we intersect later you’ll not know what is being intersected.

make_fishnet <- function(geometry, n = 10, hex = TRUE) {
  g <- st_make_grid(geometry, square = !hex, n = n)
  g[lengths(st_intersects(g, geometry)) != 0] 
}


grd <- make_fishnet(future_land_use, n = 40) |> 
  st_as_sf() |> 
  mutate(hex_id = row_number())

plot(grd)

Man, I love maps of sequential IDs.

Next, we split our mixed use polygons based on the hexagons.

# how much area in each hexagon
lu_intersects <- st_intersection(mixed_use, grd)
Warning: attribute variables are assumed to be spatially constant throughout all
geometries

Then we calculate the area of each resultant shape.

overlap_area <- lu_intersects |> 
  mutate(area = st_area(geometry)) 

plot(overlap_area[, "area"])

The next step here is to take the split polygons, and join the data back to the hexagons. I use a right join because they don’t get enough love. And also because if you try to do a join with two sf objects they’ll scream!!.

# join it back to the grid
hex_area_overlap <- st_drop_geometry(overlap_area) |> 
  select(hex_id, area) |> 
  right_join(grd, by = "hex_id") |> 
  st_as_sf() 

hex_area_overlap
Simple feature collection with 1381 features and 2 fields
Geometry type: POLYGON
Dimension:     XY
Bounding box:  xmin: -84.55738 ymin: 33.64417 xmax: -84.28635 ymax: 33.88926
Geodetic CRS:  WGS 84
# A tibble: 1,381 × 3
   hex_id    area                                                              x
    <int>   [m^2]                                                  <POLYGON [°]>
 1     72 160485. ((-84.5182 33.65548, -84.52146 33.65737, -84.52146 33.66114, …
 2     84  44538. ((-84.51493 33.64983, -84.5182 33.65171, -84.5182 33.65548, -…
 3     85 176134. ((-84.51493 33.66114, -84.5182 33.66302, -84.5182 33.66679, -…
 4     87   5049. ((-84.51493 33.68376, -84.5182 33.68565, -84.5182 33.68942, -…
 5     97 380145. ((-84.51167 33.65548, -84.51493 33.65737, -84.51493 33.66114,…
 6    100 110821. ((-84.51167 33.68942, -84.51493 33.6913, -84.51493 33.69507, …
 7    106   8232. ((-84.51167 33.75729, -84.51493 33.75917, -84.51493 33.76294,…
 8    110 109249. ((-84.5084 33.64983, -84.51167 33.65171, -84.51167 33.65548, …
 9    111 150687. ((-84.5084 33.66114, -84.51167 33.66302, -84.51167 33.66679, …
10    113 141654. ((-84.5084 33.68376, -84.51167 33.68565, -84.51167 33.68942, …
# … with 1,371 more rows
# ℹ Use `print(n = ...)` to see more rows

Now plot it!

ggplot(hex_area_overlap, aes(fill = as.numeric(area))) +
  geom_sf(color = "black", lwd = 0.15) +
  theme_void() +
  scale_fill_viridis_c(
    option = "plasma", 
    na.value = NA,
    labels = scales::comma
    ) +
  labs(fill = "Area of mixed-use zoning (m)")